Parkinson Qigong: mindfulness in beweging ~ fitness, energie en aandachtstraining voor mensen met parkinson


Wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar de effecten van Qi-training (qigong en tai chi) bij parkinson

Door Robberto Bos

Vraag: Wat vind de wetenschap van qigong bij parkinson? Is er onderzoek naar de effecten op de ziekte van parkinson?

Antwoord: Meerdere onderzoeken beschrijven o.a. deze effecten van van qi of chi training (qigong, qi gong, tai chi, taiji, of daarop gebaseerde methoden):

Aantekeningen bij de onderzoeken

Factoren die de effecten kunnen beïnvloeden

Hier de referenties:

Wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar de effecten van chi training (qigong, qi gong, chi kung, tai chi) op de ziekte van parkinson:

  1. Amano S, Nocera JR, Vallabhajosula S, Juncos JL, Gregor RJ, et al. (2013) The effect of Tai Chi exercise on gait initiation and gait performance in persons with Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Related Disorders 19:955–960.
  2. Audette JF, Jin YS, Newcomer R, Stein L, Duncan G, Frontera WR (2006). Tai Chi versus brisk walking in elderly women. Age Ageing. Jul; 35(4):388‐93.
  3. Bega D, Zadikoff C: Complementary & Alternative Management of Parkinson’s Disease: an evidence-based review of Eastern influenced practices, J Mov Disorder 2014; 7(2): 57-66.
  4. Burini D, Farabollini B, Iacucci S, Rimatori C, Riccardi G, Capecci M, et al. A randomised controlled cross-over trial of aerobic training versus Qigong in advanced Parkinson’s disease. Eura Medicophys 2006;42:231-8.
  5. Chang JY, Tsai PF, Beck C, Hagen JL, Huff DC, et al. (2011) The effect of tai chi on cognition in elders with cognitive impairment. Medsurg Nurs 20:63–70.
  6. Cheon SM, Chae BK, Sung HR, Lee GC, Kim JW. The Efficacy of Exercise Programs for Parkinsonʹs Disease: Tai Chi versus Combined Exercise. J Clin Neurol. 2013 Oct;9(4):237‐43.
  7. Cheon, S.M., Sung, H.R., Chae, B.K., Ryu, H.J., Kim, J.W. (2012) Benefits Of Exercise In Parkinson’s Disease. Movement Disorders 2012;27 Suppl 1 :350
  8. Choi HJ, Garber CE, Jun TW, Jin YS, Chung SJ, et al. (2013) Therapeutic effects of tai chi in patients with Parkinson’s disease. ISRN Neurol 2013:548240. ***
  9. Choi JH, Moon JS, Song R. (2005). Effects of Sun‐style Tai Chi exercise on physical fitness and fall prevention in fall‐prone older adults. J Adv Nurs. Jul;51(2):150‐7.
  10. Chung, Aaron. Efficacy of Tai Chi on Improving Functional Outcome Measures Associated with Fall Risk in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: An Evidence-Based Review, UCSF/SFSU GraduatenProgram in Physical Therapy.
  11. Corcos DM, Comella CL, Goetz CG (2012) Tai chi for patients with Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med. 2012 May 3;366(18):1737-8; author reply 1738.
  12. Crew Aurora, Petrosky Jacquelyn, Byrnes Katelyn. The Effects of Tai Chi on Physical Functioning in Older Adults with Parkinson’s Disease. Temple University
  13. Gao Q, Leung A, Yang Y, Wei Q, Guan M, Jia C, et al. Effects of Tai Chi on balance and fall prevention in Parkinson’s disease: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation 2014; Feb 11;28:748–53.
  14. Gatts S. (2008). Neural mechanisms underlying balance control in Tai Chi. Med Sport Sci. 52:87‐103.
  15. Gatts SK, Woollacott MH. Neural mechanisms underlying balance improvement with short term Tai Chi training. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2006 Feb; 18(1):7‐19.
  16. Gladfelter BA (2011) The Effect of Tai Chi Exercise on Balance and Falls in Persons with Parkinson’s. Evidence-Based Practice Project Reports.
  17. Gregory H, Watson MC (2009) The effectiveness of Tai Chi as a fall preventionintervention for older adults: a systematic review. International Journal of Health Promotion & Education Vol 47 Nr 3 2009 94-100
  18. Hackney ME, Earhart GM (2009) Health-related quality of life and alternative forms of exercise in Parkinson disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 15:644–648
  19. Hackney ME, Earhart GM. (2008) Tai Chi improves balance and mobility in people with Parkinson disease. Gait Posture. 2008;28:456-460. ***
  20. Harmer P, Li F (2013) Self-Report Benefits Of Tai Chi Training By Patients With Parkinson’s Disease, Movement Disorders 2013;28 Suppl 1 :319 .
  21. Hass CJ, Gregor RJ, Waddell DE, Oliver A, Smith DW, Fleming RP, et al. The influence of Tai Chi training on the center of pressure trajectory during gait initiation in older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004; 85:1593–8.
  22. Hass CJ, Waddell DE, Wolf SL, Juncos JL, Gregor RJ. The influence of tai chi training on locomotor ability in Parkinson’s disease
  23. Hayes (2013) Tai chi for improving balance and function in patients with parkinson’s disease.
  24. Hyeong-Dong K, , Hyun Dong J, Ji Hoon
  25. Hyeong-Dong K, Tae-You K, Hyun Dong J (2011) The Effects of Tai Chi Based Exercise on Dynamic Postural Control of Parkinson’s Disease Patients while Initiating Gait Journal of Physical Therapy Science / 23 / 265-269 / 2011
  26. Hong Y, Li JX, Robinson PD. Balance control, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory fitness among older Tai Chi practitioners. Br J Sports Med. 2000; 34:29–34.
  27. Hongliang T (2012) Re: Physiotherapy intervention in Parkinson’s disease: systematic review and meta-analysis BMJ 2012; 345 09 December 2012
  28. Kim HD, Kim TY, Jae HD, Son ST (2011) The Effects of Tai Chi Based Exercise on Dynamic Postural Control of Parkinson’s Disease Patients while Initiating Gait. J Phys Ther Sci. 2011;23:265-269.
  29. Kim HD, Jae HD, Jeong JH, Tai Chi Exercise can Improve the Obstacle Negotiating Ability of People with Parkinson’s Disease: A Preliminary Study Journal Physical Therapy Science, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1025–1030, 2014.
  30. Klein PJ (2008) Tai chi chuan in the management of Parkinson’s disease and alzheimer’s disease, med sport sci. 2008;52:173-81.
  31. Klein PJ, Rivers L (2006) Taiji for Individuals with Parkinson Disease and their Support Partners: Program Evaluation. J of Neurol Phys Ther. 2006;30:22-27.
  32. Kluding P, McGinnis PQ  (2006) Multidimensional exercise for people with Parkinson’s disease: a case report Physiother Theory Pract 2006; 22(3):153-62
  33. Lam LC, Chau RC, Wong BM, Fung AW, Lui VW, et al. (2011) Interim follow-up of a randomized controlled trial comparing Chinese style mind body (Tai Chi) and stretching exercises on cognitive function in subjects at risk of progressive cognitive decline. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 26: 733-740. ***
  34. Lan C, Chen SY, Lai JS, and Wong AM (2013) Tai Chi Chuan in Medicine and Health Promotion Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013: 502131
  35. Lee, Hwa-Jin; Lee, Hye-Jung; Yin, Chang-Shik; Chae, Youn-Byoung; Baik, You-Sang; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Jea; Park, Hi-Joon;  Development of disease-specific qigong program for Parkinson’s disease. Korean Journal of Acupuncture, Volume 26, Issue 4,  2009, pp.77-8
  36. Lee MS, Lam P, Ernst E (2008) Effectiveness of tai chi for Parkinson’s disease: a critical review. Parkinsonism Relat Disord14:589–594
  37. Lelard T, Doutrellot PL, David P, Ahmaidi S (2010) Effects of a 12-Week Tai Chi Chuan Program Versus a Balance Training Program on Postural Control and Walking Ability in Older People Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 91, January 2010
  38. Li F: Effects of Tai Ji Quan training on limits of stability in older adults, Clinical Interventions in Aging, 21 July 2014,
  39. Li F (2013) Tai Ji Quan Exercise for People with Parkinson’s Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Movement Disorders, International Journal of Integr Medicine; 1(4)
  40. Li F ((2014) Transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan techniques into integrative movement therapy – Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance Journal of Sport and Health Science 3 (2014) 9e15
  41. Li F, et al. Tai Chi-Based Exercise for Older Adults With Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot-Program Evaluation. J Aging Phys Act. 2007;15:139-51.
  42. Li F, Fitzgerald K, Postural stability in Parkinson’s disease patients after Tai Chi training: a randomized controlled trial, Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, vol. 18, supplement 2, p. S155, 2012.
  43. Li F, Harmer P: Economic Evaluation of a Tai Ji Quan Intervention to Reduce Falls in People With Parkinson Disease, Oregon, 2008–2011. Prev Chronic Dis 2015;12:140413
  44. Li F, Harmer P (2013) Tai Chi Training To Reduce Falls In Patients With Parkinson’s Disease – A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Movement Disorders 2013;28 Suppl 1 :280
  45. Li F, Harmer P, Fisher KJ, et al. Tai chi and fall reductions in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005; 60:187–194.
  46. Li F, Harmer P, Fisher KJ, McAuley E. (2004). Tai Chi: improving functional balance and predicting subsequent falls in older persons. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Dec;36(12):2046‐52.
  47. Li F, Harmer P, Fisher KJ, Xu J, Fitzgerald K, Vongjaturapat N. Tai Chi‐based exercise for older adults with Parkinsonʹs disease: a pilot‐program evaluation. J Aging Phys Act. 2007 Apr;15(2):139‐51.
  48. Li F, Harmer P, Fitzgerald K, Eckstrom E, Stock R, et al. (2012) Tai chi and postural stability in patients with Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med 366:511– 519.
  49. Li F, Harmer P, Glasgow R, Mack KA, Sleet D, et al. (2008) Translation of an effective tai chi intervention into a community-based falls-prevention program. Am J Public Health 98:1195–8.
  50. Li F, Harmer P, Liu Y, Eckstrom E, Fitzgerald K, et al.(2013) A randomized controlled trial of patient-reported outcomes with tai chi exercise in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2014 Apr;29(4):539‐45.
  51. Li JX  (2011) The motion control effect of Parkinson’s disease patient treating by Taijiquan, Ph.D. dissertation, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China, 2011, (Chinese).
  52. Li JX (2011) The motion control effect of Parkinson’s disease patients treating by Taijiquan with madopar. Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine.
  53. Li JX, Xu DQ, Hong Y. Effects of 16-week Tai Chi intervention on postural stability and proprioception of knee and ankle in older people. Age Ageing. 2008; 37:575–8.
  54. Lin MR, Hwang HF, Wang YW, Chang SH, Wolf SL. (2006). Community‐based tai chi and its effect on injurious falls, balance, gait, and fear of falling in older people. Phys Ther. Sep;86(9):1189‐201.
  55. Liu T, Lao L (2012) Tai chi for patients with Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med. 2012 May 3;366(18):1737; author reply 1738
  56. Loftus Fader, Sheree (2008) Qi Gong exercise to improve balance for Parkinson fall prevention, dissertation/thesis, University of Massachusetts Amherst 2008
  57. Loftus SL, Qi Gong to improve postural stability (QTIPS) for Parkinson fall prevention: a neuroplasticity approach, Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 58–69, 2014.
  58. Logghe IH, Verhagen AP, Rademaker AC, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, van Rossum E, Faber MJ, et al. The effects of tai chi on fall prevention, fear of falling and balance in older people: a meta analysis. Preventive Medicine 2010;51(34): 222-227
  59. MacLaggan L. The impact of tai chi chuan training on the gait, balance, fear of falling, quality of life, and tremor in four women with moderate idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. The thesis of Master of Science in Physiotherapy. Halifax: Dalhousie University, 2000.
  60. Madden, K. (2012). Oregon Research Institute Tai Chi Program helps Parkinson’s Disease Patients.
  61. Marjama-Lyons J, Smith L, Myal B, Nelson J, Holliday G, Seracino D. Tai Chi and reduced rate of falling in Parkinson’s disease: a single blinded pilot study. Mov Disord. 2002;17:S70e1
  62. Nocera JR, Amano S, Vallabhajosula S, Hass CJ (2013). Tai Chi Exercise to Improve Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease. J Yoga Phys Ther. 2013 3.3
  63. Parekh V (2012) Parkinson disease: Tai chi improves balance in Parkinson disease. Nat Rev Neurol. 2012 Mar 20;
  64. Payne P, Crane-Godreau MA. (2013) Meditative movement for depression and anxiety. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2013 Jul 24;4:71.
  65. Purchas MA, MacMahon DG. The effects of Tai Chi training on general wellbeing and motor performance in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a pilot study. Mov Disord 2007;22:S80.
  66. Salgado S, Williams N, Kotian R, and Salgado M (2013) An Evidence-Based Exercise Regimen for Patients with Mild to Moderate Parkinson’s Disease. Brain Sci. 2013, 3, 87-100
  67. Sandlund ES, Norlander T (2000) The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan Relaxation and Exercise on Stress Responses and Well-Being: An Overview of Research, International Journal of Stress Management, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2000
  68. Schmitz-Hübsch Tanja: Pilotstudie zur Anwendung von Qigong Yangsheng bei Patienten mit Morbus Parkinson – Zwischenbericht, Zeitschrift für Qigong Yangsheng, 2002, S.104-107
  69. Schmitz‐Hübsch Tanja, Pyfer D, Kielwein K, Fimmers R, Klockgether T, Wüllner U. (2006) Qigong exercise for the symptoms of Parkinsonʹs disease: a randomized, controlled pilot study. Mov Disord. 2006 Apr;21(4):543‐8.
  70. Sung H, Cheon SM, Kim JW (2012) The Effect Of Exercise On Different Clinical Severity Of Parkinson’s Disease. Movement Disorders 2012;27 Suppl 1 :914
  71. Sung HR, Yang JH, Kang MS. Effects of Tai Chi Chuan exercise on updrs-me, function fitness, bdi and qol in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Kor J Phys Edu. 2006; 45:583–590.
  72. Toh SFM (2013) A Systematic Review on the Effectiveness of Tai Chi Exercise in Individuals with Parkinson ‘s Disease from 2003 to 2013. Hong Kong J Occup Ther 23:69–81. ***
  73. Tousignant M, Corriveau H, Roy PM, Desrosiers J, Dubuc N, Hébert R, Tremblay‐ Boudreault V, Beaudoin AJ. (2012). The effect of supervised Tai Chi intervention compared to a physiotherapy program on fall‐related clinical outcomes: a randomized clinical trial. Disabil Rehabil. 34(3):196‐201.
  74. Tousignant, M., Corriveau, H.; Roy, P.M.; Desrosiers, J.; Dubuc, N.; Hebert, R. (2012) Efficacy of supervised Tai Chi exercises versus conventional physical therapy exercises in fall prevention for frail older adults: A randomized controlled trial. Disabil Rehabil 2013 Aug;35(17):1429-35.
  75. Tousignant, M., Corriveau, H.; Roy, P.M.; Desrosiers, J.; Dubuc, N.; Hébert R, Tremblay-Boudreault V, Beaudoin AJ (2012) The effect of supervised Tai Chi intervention compared to a physiotherapy program on fall-related clinical outcomes: a randomized clinical trial. Disabil Rehabil. 2012;34(3):196-201.
  76. Tsang WW (2013) Tai Chi training is effective in reducing balance impairments and falls in patients with Parkinson’s disease – Commentary J Physiother. 2013 Mar;59(1):55
  77. Tsang WW, Hui-Chan CW (2004) Effect of 4- and 8-wk intensive Tai Chi Training on balance control in the elderly. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; 36(4):648-57
  78. Venglar M. Case Report: Tai Chi and Parkinsonism. Physiother Res Int. 2005;10(2):116-121.
  79. Venglar M: Tai chi improves balance in people with Parkinson’s disease, Evid Based Med. 2013 Feb;18(1)
  80. Voukelatos A, Cumming RG, Lord SR, Rissel C. A randomized, controlled trial of tai chi for the prevention of falls: the Central Sydney tai chi trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55:1185–1191.
  81. Wahbeh H, Elsas SM, Oken BS. Mind–body interventions: Applications in neurology. Neurology. 2008 June 10; 70(24): 2321–2328
  82. Wang F, Man JKM, Lee EKO, Wu T, Benson H, Fricchione GL, Wang W, Yeung A (2013) The Effects of Qigong on Anxiety, Depression, and Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2013, Article ID 152738.
  83. Wang X, Combination of acupuncture, qigong and herbs in the treatment of parkinsonism, International Journal of Clinical Acupuncture, 1993;4(1):1-7 (eng).
  84. Wassom DJ, Lyons KE, Pahwa R, Liu W. (2014) Qigong exercise may improve sleep quality and gait performance in Parkinson’s disease: a pilot study. Int J Neurosci. 2014 Oct 22.
  85. Welsh M, Kymn M, Walters CH (1997) Tai Chi and Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 1997; 12 Suppl 1:137.
  86. Willeboordse Sandra, Auswirkungen von Qigong auf die Lebensqualität Auswirkungen von Taijichuan auf das Gleichgewicht bei Parkinson-Patienten, Zeitschrift für Qigong Yangsheng, 2012 S. 140-146
  87. Wolf SL, Barnhart HX, Kutner NG, McNeely E, Coogler C, Xu T. Reducing frailty and falls in older persons: an investigation of Tai Chi and computerized balance training. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1996; 44:489–97.
  88. Wu G. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Tai Chi for Improving Balance and Preventing Falls in the Older Population—A Review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002; 50:746–54. [PubMed: 11982679]
  89. Xiaojia N, Shaonan L, Fuchang L, Xiaogeng S, Xinfeng G (2014) Efficacy and Safety of Tai Chi for Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, Plos One June 2014 Volume 9 Issue 6 ***
  90. Xu D, Hong Y, Li J, Chan K (2004) Effect of tai chi exercise on proprioception of ankle and knee joints in old people Br J Sports Med 2004;38:50–54
  91. Yang GY, Wang LQ, Ren J, Zhang Y, Li ML, Zhu YT, Luo J, Cheng YJ, Li WY, Wayne PM, Liu JP. (2015) Evidence base of clinical studies on tai chi: a bibliometric analysis. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 16;10(3):e0120655.
  92. Yang Y, Hao YL, Tian WJ, Gong L, Zhang K, Shi QG, Sun DF, Li CL, Zhao ZL (2015) The effectiveness of Tai Chi for patients with Parkinson’s disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2015 Mar 24;16(1):111. doi: 10.1186/s13063-015-0639-8.
  93. Yang Y, Li XY, Gong L, Zhu YL, Hao YL. (2014) Tai Chi for improvement of motor function, balance and gait in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 21;9(7):e102942
  94. Yang Y, Qiu WQ, Hao YL, Lv ZY, Jiao SJ, Teng JF (2015) The Efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medical Exercise for Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 1;10(4)
  95. Yeung A, Slipp LE, Jacquart J, Fava M, Denninger JW, Benson H, Fricchione GL (2013) The Treatment of Depressed Chinese Americans Using Qigong in a Health Care Setting: A Pilot Study, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 23, Article ID 6878.
  96. Youlian Hong, Jing Xian Li, P D Robinson Balance control, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory fitness among older Tai Chi practitioners Br J Sports Med 2000;34:29–34
  97. Yu X, Xu J, Shao D, et al. The auxiliary qigong therapy for Parkinson’s disease and its effects on EEG and P300. ournal of International Society of Life Information Science 1998;16(1):73-81.
  98. Yu XH, Xu JF, Shao DY, Fa ZG, Chen GZ. Clinical trial of Qigong for Parkinson’s disease. Chinese Journal of Behavioral Medical Science. 1998; 7:303–304.
  99. Zhang JG, Ishikawa‐Takata K, Yamazaki H, Morita T, Ohta T. (2006). The effects of Tai Chi Chuan on physiological function and fear of falling in the less robust elderly: an intervention study for preventing falls. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. Mar‐Apr; 42(2):107‐16.
  100. Zhang TY,  Hu Y, Nie ZY, Jin RX, Chen F, Guan Q, Hu H, Gu CY, Zhu L, Jin LJ. Effects of Tai Chi and Multimodal Exercise Training on Movement and Balance Function in Mild to Moderate Idiopathic Parkinson Disease. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (2015) 94, 921-929
  101. Zhou Y, Wu L. The Influences of Taiji Softball Exercise With Drug Therapy in Mild Parkinson’s Patients on the Rehabilition. Fujian Sports Science and Technology 2009;28:15-20.
  102. Zhou Y, Yin T, Gao Q, Yang XC (2015) A Meta-Analysis on the Efficacy of Tai Chi in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease between 2008 and 2014. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2015, Article ID 593263, 9 pages •••
  103. Zhu Y, Li JX, Li N, Jing HZ, Hua L, et al. (2011) Effect of Taijiquan on Motion Control for Parkinson’s Disease at Early Stage. Chin J Rehabil Theory Pract 17: 355–358.

Stuur eventuele aanvullingen of correcties a.u.b. naar Robberto Bos


Vraag meer informatie, of geef je op:

nieuwsbrief  ~  mob: 06-40901590  ~  e-mail


© Copyright 2014-2019 Robberto Bos Chi Kung, Doorwerth